Using ASTM D2000 or SAE J200 as an engineering tool: Q&A with Jeff Marek

Using ASTM D2000 or SAE J200 as an engineering tool: Q&A with Jeff Marek

ASTM D2000/SAE J200 encompasses a wide range of applications for rubber products. What is the main purpose of these standards?

The main purpose of ASTM D2000 is to provide engineers with an exhaustive qualification system for various rubber compounds. By standardizing the system, engineers can quickly reference the various characteristics of a specific material to understand if it could potentially be a good match for a given application. The system was developed to allow for flexibility and proper qualification of future materials and compounds that are developed.

SAE J200 was created to mirror the ASTM D2000 standard, but apply mainly to rubber compounds being used in automotive applications. While both standards were issued to provide engineers with a thorough method of qualifying materials, some applications will be extremely unique and require custom qualification methods. In these cases, the material manufacturer or 3rd party testing labs can be consulted to understand the best application for a given material. 

What are the main descriptions used for rubber materials in the standard? [Type, class, grade, etc.]

The main classifications that are used in the standard are Type and Class.

  • Type covers changes in tensile strength of not more than +/- 30%, elongation of no more than -50% and hardness of not more than +/- 15 points after heat aging of 70 hours at specific temperatures as indicated in the chart.
  • Class covers the oil resistance properties of the material relative to swelling in IRM 903 oil after 70 hours of immersion at a temperature as indicated in the chart.

Each classification uses a reference chart (below) to designate the specific criteria. 

basic requirements for establishing type by temperaturebasic requirements for establishing class by volume swell

What industries is D2000 used in today? What aspects of rubber classification are important to each?

While D2000 was primarily developed to be used in the automotive industry (SAE J200 was developed specifically for automotive applications), it can be applied to a wide variety of industry applications. Aerospace, medical and industrial applications all have many of the same considerations when specifying materials for use in their products. So, the classification can easily be applied across products in a number of industries that utilize the following polymers:

Classification System D2000-SAE J200 Material Designation (Type and Class)

  • AA Natural rubber, reclaimed rubber, SBR,butyl, EP polybutadiene, polyisoprene
  • AK Polysulfides
  • BA Ethylene propylene, high-temperature SBR and butyl compounds
  • BC Chloroprene polymers (neoprene), cm
  • BE Chloroprene polymers (neoprene), cm
  • BF NBR polymers
  • BG NBR polymers, urethanes
  • BK NBR
  • CA Ethylene propylene
  • CE Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon), cm
  • CH NBR polymers, epichlorohydrin polymers
  • DA Ethylene propylene polymers
  • DE CM, CSM
  • DF Polyacrylic (butyl-acrylate type)
  • DH Polyacrylic polymers, HNBR
  • EE AEM
  • EH ACM
  • EK FZ
  • FC Silicones (high strength)
  • FE Silicones
  • FK Fluorinated silicones
  • GE Silicones
  • HK Fluorinated elastomers (Viton, Fluorel, etc.)
  • KK Perfluoroelastomers

How are these descriptions useful for engineers in product development?

The Line Call-Out (or specification) provides engineers with a quick reference point when looking for a material to meet a certain application. Application specifications (eg temperature, fluids, weathering) help to dictate a smaller list of potential materials to be chosen for the product design. While further testing would most likely be required, it greatly limits the list of viable options and helps to reduce qualification testing costs and variables in the research and development stages. A line call out contains the grade, type, class, hardness, tensile strength along with the suffix requirements for a given material. An example has been listed below with the definition for each number or letter designation (example courtesy of ASTM D2000 standard):

ASTM D 2000 M2BC 507 A14 EO34

Basic Requirements:

  • M = Requirements are in SI Units.
  • 2 = Applicable Suffix Grade.
  • B = Material Type based on Temperature Resistance.
  • C = Material Class based on IRM 903 Oil Volume Swell.
  • 5 = x 10 is Type A Hardness (i.e., 5 indicates requirement is 50).
  • 07 = Tensile Strength (“M” in line call out indicates units are in MPa).

Suffix Requirements:

  • A14 = A - Heat Resistance; 1 – D 573, 70 h; 4 – 100°C
  • EO34 = EO – Fluid Resistance in Oils and Lubricants; 3 –
  • D 471, IRM 903 Oil, 70 h; 4 – 100°C

What are some of the other common ASTM standards used to evaluate rubber materials for classification in D2000?

There are a wide variety of ASTM testing standards that are referenced in D2000 that are used to get the values present in the material specification. Obviously, each of these standards can be used to test individual material characteristics or to further qualify a given material or benchmark it against another option. Several standards are listed below for reference:

  • ASTM D395
  • ASTM D412 / ISO 48
  • ASTM D429
  • ASTM D430
  • ASTM D471
  • ASTM D573 / ISO 188
  • ASTM D575
  • ASTM D624 / ISO 34-1
  • ASTM D865
  • ASTM D925
  • ASTM D945
  • ASTM D1053
  • ASTM D1149
  • ASTM D1171
  • ASTM D1329
  • ASTM D1349
  • ASTM D1418
  • ASTM D2137 / ISO 812
  • ASTM D2240
  • ASTM D3183
  • ASTM D5964

What services does Smithers offer to support companies who are evaluating rubber materials for use in new product development?

Smithers provides both chemical analysis of polymer based materials as well as physical testing to better understand material characteristics. Custom benchmarking studies are commonly done to help engineers with material selection or to understand material failures in the field. In addition, once materials have been integrated in an end use product, Smithers also works with client on standard and custom product testing protocols. Rubber products such as hoses, belts and seals are commonly tested to ensure they meet industry regulations and OEM specifications.